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  2. 無憂雅思網_雅思預測_雅思機經_雅思考試_雅思資料下載_雅思名師_2018年雅思考試時間



      達·芬奇(1452 – 1519)

      列奧納多·達·芬奇1452 年生于佛羅倫薩芬奇鎮附近的安基亞諾村,1519 年歿于法國安波斯城克魯堡,是歐洲文藝復興最杰出的代表。他不僅是著名的藝術家,而且是偉大的科學家。他是一位知識淵博、多才多藝的人,恩格斯對他的評價很高,贊揚他"不僅是大畫家,而且與是大數學家、力學家和工程師"。

      達·芬奇從小勤奮好學,天賦聰明。從孩提時代開始,他就喜愛畫畫,人們稱他為小畫家。他的父親賽爾·比埃羅·達·芬奇是佛羅倫薩的公證人。達·芬奇是私生子,5 歲時,生母被其父遺棄,他從小就跟祖父在鄉下生活。由于他天資過人,14歲時拜藝術家委羅基奧為師,到畫室學畫。他認真學習和鉆研各方面的知識,為后來在藝術及科學方面的提高打下了良好的基礎。

      達·芬奇一生的藝術活動分為早、中、晚三個時期,早期活動在佛羅倫薩,中期在米蘭和佛羅倫薩峽谷地,晚期在米蘭。1513~1516 年,他奔走于羅馬和佛羅倫薩之間。他一生創作頗豐,主要成就有以下幾個方面:繪畫方面創作了《蒙娜麗莎》《最后的晚餐》等一系列重要作品;音樂方面能唱歌彈琴,吹奏笛子,譜曲作詞,還主持文藝演出活動,設計舞臺背景和服裝、道具;醫學方面,醫學家們公認達•芬奇是近代生理解剖的始祖;水利工程方面,達•芬奇對水利學的研究比意大利的學者克斯鐵列早一個世紀,而且其設計的一些水利設施至今仍在發揮作用。除此之外,達芬奇還在物理,數學,天文,機械等方面具有重要的貢獻?! ?/p>


      Leonardo da Vinci(1452 – 1519)

      Leonardo da Vinci was born in April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Leonardo's mastery in art, science and engineering have earned him a place among the most prolific geniuses of history. He was one of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance, a period when the arts and sciences flourished. At age 17, Leonardo and his father moved to Florence, where he apprenticed to Verrocchio. His brilliance soon eclipsed that of his master. In 1472 Leonardo became a member of the painter's guild of Florence, where he had contact with other great Florentine artists including Michelangelo Buonarroti.

      In 1481 Leonardo left Florence for Milan to offer his service to the local Duke. During this period he painted the Virgin of the Rocks and the Last Supper. In 1499 Leonardo left Milan, traveling through Mantua, to the court of Isabella d'Este; to Venice, where he consulted on architecture from 1495 to 1499; and in 1502 and 1503 was military engineer for Cesare Borgia. After his service to the Borgias, Leonardo returned to Florence. It was during the period between 1503 and 1506, while working primarily in Florence, that he had his greatest following and painted such classics as the "Mona Lisa."

      Leonardo left Florence for Milan in 1506, although he returned in 1507-8 to fight for his inheritance from his Uncle. In 1509 he returned to Milan and devoted much of his time to scientific studies, and to engineering projects such as channeling the course of the Adda river. In 1512 Leonardo left Milan again, and from 1513 to 1516 was in Rome under the protection of Giuliano de Medici, the brother of Pope Leo X. Here Leonardo came into contact with Michelangelo, and another young rival, Raphael. After the death of Giuliano dei Medici, Leonardo accepted an invitation from French friends and moved to the castle of Cloux near Amboise, where he stayed with his faithful pupil Melzi until the end of his life. Leonardo died on May 2, 1519, and was buried in the cloister of San Fiorentino in Amboise.

      名言 :Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; …even so does inaction sap the vigor of the mind.

      Key words: versatility


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